The Basics of Law


Whether you’re looking to get a lawyer to help with your case or you want to learn more about legal topics, there are a number of reasons why you should know more about the law. This article will introduce you to a few of the most common types of laws and the various areas of law that are covered.

Common law

Generally speaking, the common law is a body of legal rules established by courts. It is based on the principles of case law, also known as legal precedent.

The body of rules should be relevant and consistent with one another. It should also be in accordance with policies and moral norms. It should be the best way to arrive at the correct solution when a conflict exists.

The American Law Institute publishes Restatements of various subject matter areas. They are commonly cited by attorneys and courts in the US.

A common law court uses an adversarial system. The presiding judge determines which precedents apply to a specific case. The court may also announce a new legal doctrine.

Roman law

During the period of the Roman Republic, the legal system was divided into two forms: written law and unwritten law. The written law was made up of the Twelve Tables of Law. Roman law was a mix of civil and criminal law. During the Republic, the law was largely formulated by the praetors.

During the mid-Republic, a formulary system was introduced. The parties would formulate their issues in a case, and the magistrate would then decide the form of judicial remedy. This procedure continued until the 3rd century A.D.

The most important contribution of Roman law to European legal culture was the emergence of legal science. During this period, the jurists were active, giving legal opinions at the request of clients. These lawyers were practical people who focused on individual cases.

Civil law

Essentially, civil law is a system of rules that governs disputes between individuals and private entities. It is distinguished from criminal law, which deals with offenses against the state, society, or individual.

It can be used to resolve a range of legal issues, such as defamation, contract breaches, negligence, and marriage dissolution. It also covers property damage, family matters, and personal injury.

Although the term “civil law” can be applied to a number of different systems, most nations operate under a common law system. It is a set of legal rules that are enacted by legislators. These laws are usually codified.

In addition to codification, a civil law system is characterized by its structure and organization. It is largely based on Roman law and its related traditions. In particular, it is modeled on the Corpus Juris Civilis, which served as the foundation of modern civil law systems around the world.

Criminal law

Traditionally, criminal law has been a tool that helps to protect the interests of society and its members. The function of criminal law can be explained as a combination of investigative and punishment powers.

A criminal case is a court proceeding that involves the investigation and prosecution of a suspected person. It is usually brought before a jury. A person can be charged with a crime if there is sufficient evidence to warrant a conviction. A convicted person is usually punished with incarceration, fines, or a combination of both.

A criminal case can have very real and long-lasting consequences. For example, a criminal conviction can have a negative impact on a person’s access to housing and education. It can also lead to disenfranchisement.

Property law

Essentially, property law is a set of rules that govern ownership and rights with respect to things. It also deals with the allocation of wealth, the use of wealth, and the politics of society.

The concept of property is based on the notion that all tangible objects have a physical value. This is generally true, but there are certain things that are excluded from the realm of property law. Some legal systems, such as the United States, have separate categories for property law.

Property law is a complex area of law. It encompasses everything from personal possessions to intellectual property to real property.

Space law

During the Cold War, superpowers engaged in a “Space Race.” Space law has regulated superpowers during this period and continues to regulate national activities in outer space.

The first major space treaty was the Outer Space Treaty of 1967. It prohibited nuclear weapons testing in space, as well as military use of celestial bodies. It was ratified by 63 nations. Currently, the treaty remains in effect among participating states.

Non-governmental entities, such as private companies, have played an increasingly important role in space law. They require authorization from an appropriate State Party, and they must operate under that state’s supervision.

New technologies are transforming the capabilities of both State and non-State actors. This will inevitably lead to more man-made threats in space. This will pose a challenge to the future of space governance.