The Day the U.S. TV Trade Died

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Pushed lastly into unprofitability in its conventional market by ever stiffer competitors from overseas, harmed fairly than helped by a decade of economizing cutbacks in analysis and improvement, Zenith Electronics Corp.—the only real surviving U.S. producer of tv receivers—reportedly plans to name it quits within the enterprise it helped to create and nourish via some 40 years of innovation.

Certainly, nothing so neatly displays the corporate’s current state of affairs as its newest and arguably its second biggest innovation: a flat shadow masks for a flat-faced cathode ray tube hailed all over the place as a serious breakthrough. Introduced in 1986, the
Flat Tension Mask, as it’s known as, will increase the brightness of the cathode ray tube by as much as 80 p.c, its distinction ratio by as much as 70 p.c, and its decision by as much as 15 p.c over present tube designs, which use a curved face plate and curved shadow masks. The flat masks is stretched so tight that it might preserve coloration high quality even when heated erratically by excessive concentrations of electrons in shiny areas of the image.

This text was first revealed as “The longest survivor loses its grip.” It appeared within the August 1988 subject of IEEE Spectrum. A PDF version is on the market on IEEE Xplore. The images appeared within the unique print model.

Such a product exemplifies Zenith’s pursuit of top of the range, even when that has meant sticking to the excessive finish of the market. Its tube plant in Melrose Park, In poor health., is without doubt one of the most worthwhile components of its enterprise, bearing witness to the corporate’s manufacturing expertise. However at about $1000, the flat tube will not be a shopper product and as an alternative is benefiting Zenith’s newest focus of interest-its comparatively new and extremely worthwhile private pc enterprise.

The TV period ends

The tv market was fairly completely different again in 1960. Then, the Glenview, In poor health., firm tussled for the No. 1 spot with RCA Corp., of New York Metropolis, every holding over 20 p.c of the home market. Twenty-five different firms, similar to Admiral, GTE Sylvania, and Magnavox, shared the remainder of the enterprise. However one after the other, these firms both folded their tv divisions or offered them to non-U.S. rivals till, by the tip of 1987, solely Zenith remained.

The corporate’s main considerations final yr have been summarized in its annual report: “Lengthy-anticipated business worth stability didn’t materialize in 1987 due to continued dumping by Far Jap suppliers, ineffective dumping legislation administration by our authorities, and the failure of Korea and different newly industrialized Far East international locations to revalue their currencies.” These difficulties within the shopper space led to a company pretax lack of $28.9 million, regardless of an working earnings that analysts estimate at $70 million from its profitable pc enterprise.

Zenith has not formally confirmed that its tv enterprise is on the public sale block, confining itself merely to the assertion that it’s analyzing “all choices to revive company profitability to a passable degree.” However Lazard Freres & Co., of New York Metropolis, is reportedly accepting bids on behalf of the corporate for all the shopper electronics division.

The Evolution of Zenith (and the TV Trade)

1918

Chicago Radio Laboratory established; later adopts as its commerce title Z-Nth, the identification of an newbie radio station.

1924

Zenith produces the world’s first transportable radio, which incorporates massive batteries, vacuum tubes, and a horn speaker; an early mannequin is right here being held by Admiral Donald B. McMillan.

1926

Zenith manufactures the primary business hi fi to function on ac.

1940-41

A prototype of the Trans Oceanic receiver undergoes profitable area testing within the Arctic.

1945

The Tv Broadcasters Affiliation studies TV units offered in the US earlier than World Struggle II totaled 10,000.

1947

Practically 200 000 TV units offered, together with greater than 115,000 desk fashions, 37,000 consoles, 12,000 projection sorts and 25,000 consoles with radio/phonograph. 9 U.S. producers exhibit new fashions on the 1947 Chicago Furnishings Mart.

1948

Zenith enters the TV receiver enterprise, shopping for Rauland of Chicago, an image tube producer. All instructed, 31 U.S. TV makers promote 103 fashions.

1953

Zenith and 12 different TV producers display NTSC-based coloration TV receivers to the FCC.

1955

Zenith develops prototype coloration TV with distant management.

1956

Zenith patents first distant management for a TV set, the ultrasonic Area Command.

1957

Zenith patents fringe-lock know-how, a remedy for lack of image synchronization.

1959

6,300,500 units promote this yr, down from 1955’s peak of seven,700,000 and from 1950’s 7,300,100.

1960

(27 U.S. TV producers recorded—the countdown begins.)

1964

Zenith patents Chromacolor, or “black matrix” know-how, however doesn’t introduce it till 1969.

1968

(18 U.S. TV makers stay after Westinghouse Electrical, Capehart, Conrac, Dumont, Hoffman, Mattison, Olympic, Symphonica, and TraVler drop out of TV enterprise.)

1969

(Admiral buys Cortron, leaving 17 U.S. TV makers.)

1970-74

(12 U.S. TV makers left alter departure of Emerson, Arvin, Satchel-Carlson, TMA, and Teledyne Packard Bell.)

1971

Zenith opens its first non-U.S. manufacturing services, in Matamoros, Mexico, and in Taiwan, and patents surface-wave intermediate-frequency filter.

1973

Zenith introduces Energy Sentry, the primary shopper use of a saturable-core transformer to manage voltage.

1974

(9 U.S. TV makers left after North American Philips buys Magnavox Shopper Electronics, Matsushita Electrical Industrial of Japan buys Motorola’s tv enterprise plus its Quasar model title, and GTE Sylvania buys Philco trademark.)

1975

Zenith introduces first one-chip coloration demodulator and TV units with Zoom function.

1976

Zenith enhance pretax income by $27 million over 1975 complete of $978 million.

1976

(Sanyo Electrical of Japan buys TV enterprise from Warwick Electronics; Andrea Radia, a small New York-area family-owned firm, fades from the market.)

1977

Zenith halves R&D workers, shedding about 200 engineers.

1978

Zenith opens manufacturing plant in Reynosa, Mexico.

1978

(Six U.S. TV makers left when Admiral Group, by now a Rockwell subsidiary, leaves TV enterprise.)

1979

Zenith introduces first microprocessor-based tuning system and first cable-ready receiver; buys Heath to get into the non-public pc enterprise.

1980

Zenith introduces Spacephone, which lets viewer reply telephone via TV set.

1981

(5 U.S. TV makers left after Philips buys GTE Sylvania.)

1982

Zenith strikes from ultrasound to infrared know-how for its distant controls.

1984

Zenith’s scheme for stereo TV, Multi-channel Tv Sound, is accepted because the business customary.

1984

(Wells-Gardner and Curtis-Mathes manufacturers not in TV enterprise)

1986

(GE buys RCA.)

1987

(GE sells GE/RCA shopper electronics enterprise to France’s Thomson CSF; Zenith is barely U.S. TV producer left.

1987

Zenith pronounces Flat Stress Masks, a breakthrough in cathode ray tube know-how; loses cash in shopper electronics for the primary time.

1987

Zenith cuts R&D workers, shedding 60 engineers.

1988

Zenith shopper electronics division is reported to be up on the market.

Editor’s be aware: Zenith’s final yr of profitability was 1988. In 1991, Fortunate-Goldstar, now referred to as LG, bought 5 p.c of the corporate. In 1995, LG bought a majority share. In 1999, Zenith filed for Chapter 11 chapter, and LG acquired the rest of the corporate.

Stockholder strain on the corporate to promote might have elevated from an funding partnership that has acquired 7.1 p.c of Zenith’s inventory and has introduced its intent to drive Zenith to “improve shareholder worth.” Analysts presume the partnership plans to drive the sale of the buyer electronics unit.

Lively contenders for the acquisition reportedly embrace the 4 main Korean firms—
Samsung Electronics Co., Daewoo Corp., Lucky-Goldstar Corp., and Hyundai Electronics Corp. Every would revenue from stronger U.S. distribution and a U.S. model title, and every would discover the endemically small revenue margins of the TV market fairly suitable with its long-term outlook. Thomson CSF of France has additionally reportedly entered a bid; it just lately bought RCA/GE’s shopper electronics division with the statement that “quantity is without doubt one of the guidelines of the cost-competitiveness sport.” NV Philips of the Netherlands, analysts report, is one other doubtless contender.

Many of the Japanese shopper electronics firms have already got a powerful U.S. presence, and solely certainly one of them is claimed to have made a bid. The
International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers, the union representing many Zenith staff, has additionally expressed curiosity in bidding, however appears not but to have finished so.

“If you’re in a balloon drifting throughout the ocean, and you understand that there will likely be cannibals ready once you attain land, for those who begin sinking you continue to throw out every thing, together with the weapons and ammunition, as a result of for those who don’t get to shore, it received’t matter when you have weapons or not.”
—Robert Adler, former Zenith Vice President of Analysis

The winds of change began blowing within the Seventies, when Zenith led the battle to protect the U.S. TV business from Japanese advances. By court docket motion and proposed Congressional laws, the then Zenith president John Nevin turned a well-known nationwide determine as he pressed the case for cover towards alleged dumping.

When such pleas proved futile, the corporate took drastic actions to keep up profitability—notably a halving of its analysis workers in 1977. “Many people couldn’t perceive how Zenith may blow away its analysis division,” recalled Alan Sobel, one of many engineers laid off at the moment and presently with Lucitron Inc., of Evanston, In poor health. Sobel remembers the then vp of analysis, Robert Adler, explaining it “to us this fashion: ‘If you’re in a balloon drifting throughout the ocean, and you understand that there will likely be cannibals ready once you attain land, for those who begin sinking you continue to throw out every thing, together with the weapons and ammunition, as a result of for those who don’t get to shore, it received’t matter when you have weapons or not.’ ,”

Zenith wager that videodisk gamers, fairly than videocassette recorders (VCRs), can be the customers’ alternative.

The 200 or so analysis engineers and technicians who survived the 1977 layoff have been then assigned targets that usually proved off base. For instance, like its U.S. rivals, Zenith wager that videodisk gamers, fairly than videocassette recorders (VCRs), can be the customers’ alternative. The corporate began and stopped its videodisk analysis program twice between 1971 and 1974, then ended up shopping for VCRs to resell underneath its personal title. Zenith at first selected to go together with the Betamax VCR format, shopping for items from Tokyo’s
Sony. However after the U.S. market demonstrated its choice for VHS, the corporate switched to promoting VHS VCRs from JVC of Yokohama. Zenith boasts that these Japanese-made VCRs have extra enter from a U.S. firm than some other fashions in the marketplace, as a result of it manufactures the tuner and distant controls in Mexico and provides them to Japan.

One other robust however maybe untimely effort targeted on digital TV. “We put lots of engineering right into a digital chassis,” one engineer recalled, however within the early Nineteen Eighties “folks simply weren’t … as a result of most couldn’t actually see the distinction in image high quality.” Zenith says its gross sales have been aggressive with these of the remainder of the digital TV business, however admits the business as a complete is barely now starting to take off.

Massive screens—image tubes with diagonals of 35 inches (90 centimeters) or extra—weren’t pursued due to an unwillingness to take a position $0.5 million in retooling its manufacturing services.

In response to one other engineer, massive screens—image tubes with diagonals of 35 inches (90 centimeters) or extra—weren’t pursued due to an unwillingness to take a position $0.5 million in retooling its manufacturing services, then and now restricted to a most display diagonal of 27 in.

Zenith’s substantial declare to fame within the early Nineteen Eighties was its function within the improvement of the U.S. business customary for stereo tv broadcasting, endorsed by the Federal Communications Fee (FCC) in 1984. Zenith gave this know-how to the business royalty-free, and obtained a 1985 Emmy for this work.

The R&D workers, in a burst of cost-cutting through the third quarter of 1987, was reportedly decreased by one other 60 p.c to some 20 engineers, although this quantity is tough to confirm as a result of they not work in a analysis laboratory however have been scattered all through the corporate. Zenith workers members report that the corporate deserted most work on superior coloration image tubes (though a Zenith spokesman denies this, indicating that work continues on coloration tube enhancements in addition to on the Flat Stress Masks). The identical staffers, nevertheless, say Zenith continued work, albeit on a decreased scale, on interactive tv applied sciences, digital tv, and high-definition tv (HDTV). Some analysts recommend, although, that Zenith might not be within the technical place to design HDTV merchandise.

When it was nonetheless hoping the U.S. Congress would ease aggressive pressures on TV producers, Zenith started to hedge its bets by diversifying. An organization spokesman mentioned that in 1978, administration started looking for new enterprise areas that will draw on Zenith’s strengths in high-volume and high-quality manufacturing, engineering R&D, and brand-label advertising.

For instance, a brand new division was set as much as make elements to promote to different producers (it now sells primarily to the pc business), and in 1981 Zenith started one other division to fabricate decoders and different merchandise for the cable tv (CATV) business.

The 1979 acquisition of Heath Co., St. Joseph, Mich., led to the corporate’s most profitable enterprise past its conventional boundaries. Zenith’s curiosity was piqued, not by the well-known do-it-yourself digital Heathkits, however by Heath’s desktop pc primarily based on the 6502 microprocessor. Zenith used the pc to catapult itself into changing into a serious producer of IBM-compatible private computer systems. Final yr it boasted some $1 billion in gross sales on this space.

Thriving via know-how

TV was not Zenith’s unique product. A producer of radio receivers since 1918, Zenith offered its first black and white TV set in 1948, the identical yr it acquired the Rauland Corp., a Chicago-based picture-tube producer. That first line included a turret tuner that may very well be upgraded for greater frequency channels just by having additional tuning strips added to it. In 1952, when UHF assignments have been made to broadcast stations, Zenith prospects, not like these of different producers, may adapt their TVs cheaply. Thus started what was to grow to be one of many firm’s most useful assets-customer loyalty.

Zenith engineers took half within the delivery of coloration TV. They constructed color-signal-generating gear within the early Nineteen Fifties and, together with 12 different producers, demonstrated to the Federal Communications Fee (FCC) coloration receivers constructed to the Nationwide Tv System Committee (NTSC) customary. Then Zenith drew forward by fixing one of many commonest issues of the day—lack of image synchronization as a result of interference from, say, an electrical razor or a automobile idling close by. Its resolution was fringe-lock circuitry that prevented the spurious noise from fragmenting the image or inflicting it to roll. Zenith filed for a patent for this know-how in 1951 and received it in 1957. The corporate efficiently—and profitably—sued Admiral for patent infringement.

Zenith received extra prospects within the Nineteen Fifties by being the primary to the market with a wi-fi distant management. Invented by Robert Adler, this ultrasonic gadget was marketed as Zenith’s Area Command function. It was so in style that at one level, Zenith credited it with boosting gross sales some 40%. It was licensed to RCA Corp. and adopted, with Zenith’s permission, by many different U.S. firms. Admiral once more infringed the patent, and Zenith profited from a profitable go well with. The know-how endured for about 20 years earlier than yielding to infrared distant controls, whose larger bandwidth allowed extra capabilities.

Man wearing white jacket and hair cover holds a TV panel in a dimly lit factory

Zenith’s latest technological breakthrough, the Flat Stress Masks tube, is produced on the firm’s image tube plant in Melrose Park, In poor health.

Zenith Electronics Corp.

The black matrix

One in every of Zenith’s largest claims to paint TV know-how fame is Chromacolor, a sort of tube that the remainder of the business dubbed unfavourable guard band black matrix. The corporate patented it in 1964 and launched it in 1969. Earlier than Zenith’s innovation, coloration TV screens had trios of partly overlapping pink, inexperienced, and blue phosphor dots, the overlap forming a white background. A shadow masks between the electron beam and the phosphor grid narrowed the beam until it illuminated solely the middle of every dot, leaving the encompassing phosphor unlit to stop coloration bleeding.

In Zenith’s Chromacolor tube, the phosphor dots are shrunk and a black carbon materials—the black encompass—is deposited between them. The electron beam is allowed to bleed across the dots: the black encompass retains the colours separate on the display. This transformation helps brighten the image by permitting extra of the electron beams to achieve the phosphors. It additionally improves distinction—the black encompass prevents the reflection of ambient mild and so sharpens image element.

In 1976 Zenith patented the tri-potential electron gun, additionally known as the prolonged focal size gun. The longer focal size of the primary lens produced a extra sharply targeted electron beam, and led to the sharpest TV picture tube out there from a U.S. producer; solely Sony’s Trinitron tube (utilizing a unique know-how) equaled it. However in response to Peter Bingham, previously of RCA/GE and now govt vp for Thomson Shopper Electronics in Indianapolis, it didn’t assist Zenith as a result of “it wasn’t cost-effective. It required larger energy provides, and it was tougher to fabricate.”

Within the late Sixties, Zenith had additionally been awarded quite a lot of patents for surface-wave intermediate-frequency (SWIF) filters, now referred to as surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) filters. Simpler to fabricate and more practical at separating adjoining channels than the transformers they changed, the solid-state gadgets encompass a small platelet of piezoelectric materials with a fastidiously engineered sample of parallel aluminum strains photolithographed onto its floor. As we speak they’re widespread elements in coloration TVs and VCRs worldwide. To at the present time, Zenith income from quite a lot of SAW patents. “We have been so early within the sport that we received some broad patents,” mentioned Robert Adler. “For instance, we have been awarded a patent on any transmitting and receiving transducers on piezoelectric supplies which have completely different numbers of strains.”

Zenith didn’t instantly patent SAW know-how outdoors the US, a former workers member instructed IEEE Spectrum, as a result of key executives within the late Sixties didn’t consider that non-U. S. competitors may ever be a risk. “After I was employed,” he mentioned, “I requested in regards to the affect of Asia, and I used to be instructed that we’d by no means have to fret about it.” That perspective permeated Zenith’s early technique, he indicated. Zenith disagrees, and a spokesman mentioned the corporate’s lack of patent exercise abroad was as a result of price considerations.

Slender revenue margins—traditionally 5 to 7 p.c, narrowing to 2 to three p.c in recent times—widespread to all the shopper electronics business, depart little room for errors in advertising or manufacturing, to say nothing of design.

Slender revenue margins—traditionally 5 to 7 p.c, narrowing to 2 to three p.c in latest years-—widespread to all the shopper electronics business, depart little room for errors in advertising or manufacturing, to say nothing of design. Competitors from Japanese producers within the type of low-priced TV units within the late Sixties made the enterprise even more durable. What started as a trickle within the Sixties and early Seventies quickly changed into a rout because the Japanese minimize costs and gained market share.

The good shakeout

By 1974, main gamers have been affected. Motorola, for one, offered it, Quasar tv division to Matsushita Electric Industrial. “We have been in a number of companies that required lots of capital,” mentioned a Motorola spokesman, and “our technique indicated that our future in semiconductors and two-way radio was higher than shopper electronics.”

Zenith’s archrival, RCA, “redirected R&D to blue sky analysis,” Bingham mentioned, and for just a few years misplaced its edge in coloration tv. However as a big, diversified firm, RCA survived this error and returned to extra fruitful TV analysis within the late Seventies, in response to Bingham.

Woman holds a panel to examine it above an assembly line

Zenith’s manufacturing plant in Reynosa, Mexico, makes use of computer-controlled gear to provide components of Zenith’s TV chassis

Zenith Electronics Corp.

In these days Zenith had no companies outdoors shopper electronics to fall again on, and so needed to keep the course. Whereas pursuing cost-reduction efforts, the corporate resisted popping out with low-cost, low-quality merchandise, and thru a lot of the Seventies was rated among the many highest-quality producers by Shopper Experiences. It continued to advance coloration TV know-how, if with fewer dramatic breakthroughs than earlier than due to the sphere’s rising maturity.

Zenith additionally started to shift its product combine to greater margin merchandise—massive console units with many options—that will be much less affected by worth declines. On a number of events, nevertheless, the choice so as to add a function was made late within the design cycle, one Zenith engineer instructed Spectrum, with a web enhance in each the complexity and worth of the ultimate product.

Furthermore, the recognition of some options proved short-lived—for instance, Zoom within the Seventies and Spacephone within the Nineteen Eighties. With Zoom, a button on the distant management enabled the viewer to enlarge the middle part of an image until it crammed all the display. With Spacephone viewers may reply phone calls by speaking via their tv units.

The Seventies’ survival technique included the beginning of Zenith’s removing of some manufacturing operations out of the US, in 1971 to Matamoros, Mexico, and Taiwan and increasing later to different cities in Mexico and different international locations. As we speak Zenith builds elements, subassemblies, chassis, and different components in Matamoros, Reynosa, and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico. It produces image tubes in Melrose Park, In poor health., as famous earlier, and does last meeting of TV units in Springfield, Mo., and Reynosa.

Zenith was one of many final TV producers to maneuver from hand wiring to printed circuit boards.

Some business observers argue that Zenith erred in not relocating manufacturing operations outdoors the U.S. within the late Sixties, when a few of its U.S. rivals did. They consider Zenith trapped itself with an promoting marketing campaign touting the truth that its merchandise have been “Made in America,” and solely moved after rivals used decrease labor prices to undercut Zenith on worth. Equally, Zenith was additionally one of many final TV producers to maneuver from hand wiring to printed-circuit boards. Once more Zenith capitalized on its practices by promoting with satisfaction that its televisions have been “hand-crafted.” Within the early days, PC boards confronted reliability issues and have been very exhausting to restore, business executives say, however just for some time. They indicated that Zenith caught with the outdated know-how far longer than made sense.

The truth is, they are saying, the corporate’s recipe for achievement has for many years been to stay so long as attainable to confirmed know-how in each product design and manufacturing methods, on this manner reaping the advantage of elevated reliability and an enhanced repute for high quality. For instance, Zenith was additionally gradual in automating its factories, though at this time they’re among the many most extremely automated, and resisted changing tubes with transistors.

Then again, Zenith’s conservative strategy to mannequin types and furnishings is believed to have restricted the enchantment of its new fashions to older TV consumers. And the corporate’s failure to draw younger customers has in actual fact contributed to the gradual erosion of Zenith’s U.S. market share.

Zenith’s reluctance to vary its advertising system additionally might have harm the corporate, analysts say. Its loyal community of distributors—who purchase from Zenith and promote to retailers—is certainly one of their belongings in rural areas. However this two-tier distribution system merely provides one other layer of price in areas with massive chains of retail shops. A Zenith spokesman disagreed, stating that although on the floor this method appears dearer, the distributor system makes native advertising efforts extra environment friendly.

The patron group’s famous improvement of the Flat Stress Masks (FTM) cathode ray tube has proved a boon for the pc division, however a blended blessing to the masks’s developer. The patron division spent some $80 million, analysts estimate, to make FTM a actuality, however is hard-pressed to see any return on the funding. “We supported [computers] to get them going,” one engineer mentioned. “Among the income must be put again into us.”

Abandoning ship

Cash will not be the entire story. A former Zenith workers member instructed Spectrum that the corporate not has the R&D functionality to develop FTM right into a shopper product. Certainly, “the money cow that permit them get into the pc enterprise has grow to be an albatross round their neck,” mentioned Nicholas P. Heymann, an analyst with Drexel Burnham Lambert, of New York Metropolis.

And the albatross has been getting heavier prior to now few years. With the latest entry of Korean firms into the tv enterprise, the regular 2 to three p.c annual drop in receiver costs has doubled to five to six p.c yearly—troublesome price financial savings to attain underneath any circumstances.

Till late in 1987, analysts consider, Zenith nonetheless hoped its shopper division would grow to be worthwhile. The energy of the yen was anticipated to drive the Japanese firms to boost TV costs and the Congress was coming near passing protecting laws, for which Zenith was lobbying closely. However neither occurred, so at a while both late in 1987 or early in 1988, Zenith apparently gave up.

Most of Zenith’s extremely specialised engineers consider their experience can be essential to any firm that took over their division. There are some 500 or so scattered via the corporate, former staff reckon (Zenith declined to estimate this quantity). The minority opinion, as voiced to Spectrum by one engineer, is that such a purchaser would have an interest solely in “market share, and would preserve the engineering group a brief time frame, then disband it.”

A significant query is precisely what Zenith would bundle with its shopper electronics unit. Manufacturing operations in Mexico and in Taiwan would definitely be a part of the deal. Analysts are at odds, nevertheless, over the tube-making facility in Melrose Park, In poor health. A extremely automated plant, it has been geared as much as produce FTM tubes for pc screens, in addition to easier sorts for receivers, and would price Zenith about $330 million to switch, in response to Martin Hurwitz, an analyst with IDS Providers, a division of American Specific, in Minneapolis. Nevertheless, the power may be probably the most engaging a part of Zenith’s enterprise for any purchaser.

To probe additional

Patent 2814671 for The Noise Pulse Interruption of Synchronizing Sign Separator, higher referred to as the Fringe Lock, designed by Robert Adler and Meyer Marks, was assigned to Zenith on Nov. 26, 1957.

Patent 3446975, for the Acoustic Wave Filter designed by Robert Adler and Adrian De Vries, was assigned to Zenith on Might 27, 1969; it was the premise of many later refinements in tv engineering design.

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