That is an audio model of the Wikipedia Article:
00:02:09 1 Etymology
00:04:15 2 Classification of colleges
00:04:32 2.1 Āstika Hindu
00:05:28 2.2 Nāstika Hindu
00:06:47 Three Dialogue
00:06:56 3.1 Hinduism
00:08:31 3.1.1 Definition regardless of Vedas
00:09:47 3.1.2 Definition primarily based on perception in Atman
00:10:42 3.2 Jainism
00:12:26 3.Three Buddhism
00:14:34 four See additionally
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“The one true knowledge is in realizing you recognize nothing.”
Āstika (Sanskrit आस्तिक IAST: āstika) derives from the Sanskrit asti, “there may be, there exists”, and means “one who believes within the existence (of a soul separate from the fabric world, Brahman, and many others.)” and nāstika means “an unbeliever” . These have been ideas used to categorise Indian philosophies by fashionable students, and a few Hindu, Buddhist and Jaina texts. Āstika has been outlined in certainly one of 3 ways; as those that settle for the epistemic authority of the Vedas, as those that settle for the existence of ātman, or as those that settle for the existence of Ishvara. In distinction, nāstika are those that deny the respective definitions of āstika.The assorted definitions for āstika and nāstika philosophies has been disputed since historical occasions, and there’s no consensus. Buddhism is taken into account to be nāstika, however the Gautama Buddha is taken into account an avatar of Vishnu in some Hindu traditions.
Essentially the most studied Āstika faculties of Indian philosophies, typically known as orthodox faculties, are six: Nyāyá, Vaiśeṣika, Sāṃkhya, Yoga, Mīmāṃsā, and Vedānta. Essentially the most studied Nāstika faculties of Indian philosophies, typically known as heterodox faculties, are 4: Buddhism, Jainism, Cārvāka, and Ājīvika. This orthodox-heterodox terminology is a assemble of Western languages, and lacks scholarly roots in Sanskrit. Latest scholarly research state that there have been varied heresiological translations of Āstika and Nāstika in 20th century literature on Indian philosophies, however fairly many are unsophisticated and flawed.
Astika and Nāstika don’t imply “theism” and “atheism” respectively in historical or medieval period Sanskrit literature. In present Indian languages like Hindi, āstika and its derivatives often imply “theist”, whereas nāstika and its derivatives denote an “atheist.” Nevertheless, the phrases are used in another way in Hindu philosophy. For instance, Sāṃkhya is each an atheist (because it doesn’t settle for an anthropomorphic God) and āstika,(Vedic) philosophy. Although “God” is usually used as an epithet for consciousness (purusa) throughout the philosophy.